- The Introduction: The Guru in Sikhism
- India Before Nanak: The Peacock Throne
- This is Page Three: India After Nanak: Sikhism Today and the Nature of God
- Page Four: The Nature of the Self: The Path to Liberation: Gurbani: Sikh Rites and Practices
- Footnotes and References
INDIA AFTER NANAK
Return to Sikhism Page One.
Return to Sikhism Page Two.
Hindus had always believed, as the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita promised, "Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice... and a predominant rise of irreligion, at that time I [the Transcendent God] descend Myself" (G 4:7). Therefore, as Prahlada Maharaja had once cried out for help against his evil (asura) father Hiranyakashipu and received Vishnu's help (in the form of Nirsimhadeva), so too, the Sikhs now cried out to God for relief (SR 257, SB 2.7.14).
As Bhai Gurdas, a Sikh apostle, explained:"Heaven at last heard the prayers of the people, Guru Nanak was sent to the world. The disciples met and drank the nectar of his lotus feet, and realized the Divine in this age of materialism (i.e. Kali-yuga). Guru Nanak reestablished Dharma. All castes he merged into one caste of man. The rich and the poor he brought on one level. From this Founder of Humanity a new race of love goes forth. In humility they bow down to each other. The Master and the disciple became one... (SR 12,13).Guru Nanak was born in 1469 note 22. at Rai Bhoeki Talwandi (now Nankana Sahib) located in Punjab province, West Pakistan note 23.. From early childhood, it is said, the light of God shown brightly within him. 'He was born to deliver India from its oppressors even as Sri Nirsimhadeva had liberated the righteous Pralada.' Nanak was unconcerned with worldly affairs. His sole desire was to know and reveal God to his people, for "only He can produce true peace and justice."
At the age of seven Nanak was sent to school. As his instructor, Pundit Gopal Das, instructed the children on the alphabet, Nanak asked for the spiritual applications of it. Such significations are important in Hindu Dharma, but they are primarily known only to the scholars. The Pundit was unable to offer this knowledge, so Nanak proceeded to teach the inner significations of every letter to the class, including their bija or seed meanings, along with their applications, including the astonished teacher. This first divine instruction ('gurmat') of Nanak soimpressed Pundit Gopal Das that he took the seven year old back to his father and proclaimed, "Mehtaji (Nanak's father), your son is an Avatar (an incarnation of God) note 24. and has come to redeem the victims of Kalyuga note 25 (the present age of falsehood and illusion). He is destined to be a world teacher, there is nothing that I can teach him" (SR 14).
According to the Detroit Sikh Missionary Center, non-Sikh commentators often say that Nanak studied extensively in the various schools of Indian thought. This, they say, would explain his amazing mastery of all forms of Indian philosophy. Sikhs typically reject this explanation however, maintaining that Guru Nanak received all of his knowledge and wisdom directly from God alone. He was, they believe, a pure vessel which God "filled to over-flowing with the Divine Light ('jot')". His formal training, the little of it there seems to have been, had no bearing on his message (SR 15) at all. The above exploit is intended to demonstrate that by the age of seven Guru Nanak already possessed more knowledge than all of the teachers with whom he would have studied. That he did not learn his teachings from other humans was confirmed by his first teacher's proclamation. To truly master the alphabet itself would have taken a lifetime of learning. Guru Nanak was clearly God-taught. This is the Sikh teaching.
At nine years old Nanak refused to accept the sacred Brahminical thread, stating that he wanted only the eternal Thread of God: Such a thread, once worn, will never break, nor get soiled, burnt or lost. The man who weareth such a thread is blessed (Asa di Var, Sloka Mohalla, quoted in SR 17). In other words, the Brahminical thread was supposed to represent one's understanding and piety however Nanak preferred to receive that recognition from God alone, not man. It is also significant that by rejecting the thread Nanak was rejecting the caste system and the brahmanic hierarchy as well.
For much of Guru Nanak's life he traveled extensively, preaching his message of love and devotion to the one God. One example of these teachings and travels will have to suffice for the present endeavor.
Guru Nanak once visited Sri Jagannatha Puri note 26., one of Hinduism's four holiest sites note 27.. As usual, he did not visit as a votary, but "to teach the people that the worship of God was superior to the worship of the enshrined deity" (SR 37) or idol. The high priest recognized Nanak and invited him to take part in the Aarti or ceremony. Nanak politely declined, which outraged the priests. He replied by raising his eyes to heaven and uttering a most beautiful sabad (divine utterance). This sabad reflects the Sikh view of God nicely:The sun and moon, O Lord, are Thy lamps; the firmament
Thy salver; the orbs of the stars, the pearls encased in it.
The perfume of the sandal [tree] is Thine incense; the wind is Thy fan;
all the forests are Thy flowers, O Lord of light.
What worship is this, O Thou Destroyer of birth?
Unbeaten strains of ecstasy are the trumpets of Thy worship.
Thou hast a thousand eyes and yet not one eye;
Thou hast a thousand forms and yet not one form;
Thou hast a thousand pure feet and yet not one foot;
Thou hast a thousand organs of smell and yet not one organ
I am fascinated by this play of Thine.
The Light which is in everything is Thine, O Lord of Light.
From its brilliancy everything is brilliant;
By the Guru's teaching the light becometh manifest.
What pleaseth Thee is the real Aarti.
O God, my mind is fascinated with Thy lotus feet as the
Bumble bee with the flower: night and day I thirst for them.
Give the water of Thy grace to the sarang note 28., Nanak, so that he may dwell in Thy name.
(Denarius Mahalla, quoted in SR 38).
Sikhism continues to thrive in the Punjab and in the United States. Permit told me that from the fifties to the seventies many Sikhs left their traditional ways and adopted western methods of dress and behavior. During this time the religion was faithfully observed primarily by the older generations. Due in large part to the political conflicts between Sikhs and Hindus however, especially around the Dar bar Sahib ("Court of the Lord") or Golden Temple note 29., many younger Sikhs have now returned to a fundamentalist observance of their religion. The political turmoil, as well as what Permit views as the Hindu-designed poverty of the region, has led many Sikhs to leave the Punjab and take refuge in the West.
The early Sikh immigrants to America were mainly male. They typically remained socially isolated although some sought to blend in. With the immigration of entire families in the 60's, 70's and 80's however, social anonymity became more difficult, if not impossible, to maintain. Sikh children were enrolled in the public schools and Sikh women were seen shopping and running errands. The Sikh presence in the West could no longer be concealed and so they began to publicly live their cultural identity in whatever society they found themselves.
In 1969 the Sikh Missionary Society was formed in Britain with branches in Canada and the US. This institution sought to educate and encourage Sikhs in the renewed practice of their religion abroad. To preserve the cultural identity and integrity of the Sikh community, they began teaching the Punjabi language to its Western born children. The Society's intention is not to convert Westerners to Sikhism, although they are welcome to join and many have, but rather to promote religious knowledge and observance among their own people to encourage them to seek and serve God according to the ways of their own traditions.
Even if the Indian government yields, and the Punjab is established as an independent Sikh homeland between India and Pakistan, the influx of Sikhs to the West is certain to increase in the years to come. The Sikhs and their religion are in the West to stay.
THE NATURE OF GOD
The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Sikh definition of God:There is but one God [ek devata]The entire Guru Granth Sahib is viewed as the explanation of the above definition. Within these lines resides the heart of Sikhism. God, for the Sikhs, is the Unseen, Infinite, and Eternal Being Who is not subject to death nor change. At first glance this definition seems to suggest that the Sikh view God is the same as we Jews. Such is not the case however. Its Indian origins are clearly seen in the Sikh understanding of this God conception as we will discuss note 30..
He is the Eternal Truth
The Creator, All-Pervading Divine Spirit
Unfearful, Without hate and enmity
Immortal Entity, Unborn, Self-Existent.
He is realized by His Own Grace.
Meditate upon this:
Who was True before the Creation
Who was True in the beginning of the Creation
Who is True now, and
O Nanak, Who shall be True for Ever.
Harmonious with Judaism, Sikhism depicts an utterly transcendent Deity Who is concerned with the world and its inhabitants. According to Sikhism however, those 'aspects of God' which are knowable or describable, "My gracious Lord, keep me under Your protection," are only a small portion of the Divine Nature (GGS 53). Sikh teacher Permit Singh explained this to me in terms of saguna ("with qualities") and nirguna ("without qualities") Brahman or "vast expanse" (P; EDY 64). As in some post 8th or 9th century B.C.E. Hindu philosophies, the Sikhs acknowledge the existence of these traditionally Hindu dual levels of reality note 31. This belief. although subtle, is different from the traditional Jewish belief in the absolute Unity and Oneness of HaShem, even when considered as the Ain Soph of our mystics.
Brahman, according to Hindu thinkers such as Sri Shankaracharya, is ultimately nirguna. In other words, devoid of any qualities whatsoever. HaShem on the other hand, as Ain Soph, possesses all qualities within the Eternal Self. Despite the seeming surface similarities, there is no comparison whatsoever. Brahman is described as the utterly indefinable and indivisible transient "no-thingness." According to Shankara's interpretations of the Upanishads, all particulars that exist, from the basest to the most exalted, are "real" only in that they arise from Nirguna Brahman. It is only due to avidya or "all-pervasive ignorance," that they seem real to us through the illusions of Maya (goddess of illusion). In reality, only Brahman exists, and it exists only as nirguna, i.e. as illusory nonexistence. All saguna or perceived reality is destined to total reabsorption into the a-cosmic totality which is true reality, Brahman (ER 10.58).
Sikhism is in basic agreement with this "Mayavadi" understanding, but adds, along with the noted Sri Ramanuja note 32, Radhakrishnan and others, that "the Absolute [Brahman] is Itself more than a "plain of being." It is a living reality with a creative urge. When this aspect is stressed, the Absolute [or Brahman] becomes a Personal God, Ishvara [in saguna]." Ishvara is not therefore something different from or added to Brahman, It is Brahman" (ER59).
It is for this reason that Sikhism speaks of "God" as both an Impersonal Cause-Ground and a Personal Divinity:"He [Ishvara Brahman] has no name, no dwelling-place, no caste; He has no shape, or color, nor outer nor inner limits. He is the Primal Being, Gracious and Benign, Unborn, ever Perfect, and Eternal. He is of no nation, and wears no distinguishing garb; He has no outer likeness; He is free from all desire. To the east or to the west, look where you may, He pervades and prevails as Love and Affection" (Dasam Granth, Jap 80, SW 267).
"God is indeed Limitless, but we limited beings try to limit Him in measured and restricted terms, for we cannot know Him at all until we become one with Him" (S 37).
Continue to Page Four
Notes for Page Three
- Note 22: The Puritan Janamsakhi (biography)and Bhai Gurdas give the birth date as October 20 (Kartik) while othersgive it as April 15 (baisakh) in 1469 (SR 14). Return
- Note 23: About 55 miles north-west of Lahore. Return
- Note 24: Unlike the traditional Hindudefinition of the term avatara, which is 'Incarnation of God,' Sikhstranslate it as 'Prophet.' Again, Nanak is not accepted as an avatara inthe Hindu sense. Return
- Note 25: Kalyug (Kali-Yuga) is the lastof the four ages. It is a yuga of ignorance, hypocrisy, confusion andlack of Dharma. It lasts 432,000 years, of which roughly 5,000 havepassed. Return
- Note 26: Lord Jagannatha, the 'Lord ofthe Universe' is a form of Lord Vishnu. Upon the death of Sri Krishna,a primary Incarnation of Lord Vishnu, his bones were collected andplaced within Lord Jagannatha's murti(HM 129). Return
- Note 27: The others being Som-nath, Badri-nath and Vishwa-nath. Return
- Note 28: The sarang (chatrik or papiha)is a bird which drinks only when 'the moon is in the mansion ofArcturus.' The meaning is, when it is time to drink of God's water,Nanak is very thirsty and ready to do so because, as the bird awaits theproper time, so too does Nanak (SR 38). Return
- Note 29: The Golden Temple is thephysical heart of Sikhism. It is the most important of the five majorTakhts ("thrones") of the religion. The temple was built and theGurmukhi, or hymns of the Gurus (and others), was enshrined here byGuru Arjan in 1604. Return
- Note 30: As discussed above, Sikhismmaintains that their understanding is not based upon the teachings ofany other religion or culture. To honor this, one might say thatHinduism had previously received the same light. See above. Return
- Note 31: It was not until theShata-Patha-Brahmana (8th or 9th century B.C.E.) that the word brahmanacquired the now prominent philosophical connotation of the Absolute orVast Expanse. Previously it was understood as a 'prayer' or 'meditation'employed to evoke the universal power (also called brahman). Its rootbrih means "to grow" or "to expand" (EDY 64). Return
- Note 32: Sri Ramanuja further insiststhat brahman is essentially saguna. Nirguna brahman is known as thebrahmajyoti or spiritual effulgence of the saguna totality as the raysof the sun emanate from that luminary (HG 107). Return
* Sat Kewal Singh (John of AllFaith) © 1987 (last updated: September 15, 2017)
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